### Speaker

### Description

The violation of the discrete symmetries of charge conjugation (C), parity inversion (P), and time reversal (T) observed in high energy physics are clearly fundamental aspects of nature. A new quantum theory [1,2] has been introduced to demonstrate the possibility that the violations have large-scale physical effects. The new theory does not assume any conservation laws or equations of motion. In particular, if T violation is turned off, matter is represented in terms of virtual particles that exist momentarily only. However, with T violation turned on, what was the mathematical structure of a virtual particle now traces out an unbounded world line that satisfies conservation laws and an equation of motion. The theory is then analogous to the 5 dimensional "proper time" formalism introduced by Feynman [3], extended by Nambu [4] in the 1950's, and developed as "parameterized relativistic quantum theories" [5]. The important point here is that time evolution and conservation laws are not built into the new theory, but rather they emerge *phenomenologically* from T violation. In other words, the new theory proposes that T violation is the *origin of dynamics and conservations laws*. It has experimentally testable predictions and offers new insight into the quantum nature of time.

The talk will include an analysis of the nature of the T violation from known and expected sources such as mesons, neutrinos, and a Higgs-like scalar field. In appropriate parameter regimes, the commutator of the time-reversed versions of the associated T violating Hamiltonian, $\hat{H}_F$ and $\hat{H}_B$, is found to approach the canonical form $[\hat{H}_F,\hat{H}_B]=i\lambda \hat{1}$ where $\hat{H}_B=\hat{T}\hat{H}_F\hat{T}^{-1}$, $\hat{T}$ is Wigner's time reversal operator, $\hat{1}$ is the identity operator, and $\lambda=\langle i[\hat{H}_F,\hat{H}_B]\rangle$ represents the amount of T violation.

[1] J.A. Vaccaro, Quantum asymmetry between time and space, *Proc. R. Soc. A* **472**, 20150670 (2016).

https://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2015.0670

[2] J.A. Vaccaro, The quantum theory of time, the block universe, and human experience, *Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A* **376**, 20170316 (2018). https://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2017.0316

[3] R.P. Feynman, Mathematical Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic Interaction, *Phys. Rev.* **80**, 440-457 (1950), Appendix A. https://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.80.440

[4] Y. Nambu, The Use of the Proper Time in Quantum Electrodynamics I, *Prog. Theor. Phys.* **5**, 82 (1950). https://dx.doi.org/10.1143/ptp/5.1.82

[5] J.R. Fanchi, Review of invariant time formulations of relativistic quantum theories, *Found. Phys.* **23**, 487-548 (1993). https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01883726