Exactly hundred years ago, in May 1919, Arthur Eddington and three colleagues observed the gravitational light deflection, as predicted by Albert Einstein, during a total Sun eclipse. After a historical introduction, I'll discuss the relevance of gravitational lensing as an important tool for present-day astrophysics. In the last part of the talk I will investigate in some detail the pictures...

Black holes in equilibrium are fundamental objects predicted by General Relativity. However, real black holes form, evolve and eventually evaporate, thus they are dynamical. Do they have a well-defined boundary? Where? The usual Event Horizon is global and teleological, thus not well defined for dynamical black holes. The concepts of dynamical and trapping horizons, based on closed trapped...

What would happen if you could enter inside a black hole? You would travel to the future, coming out of a white hole! In fact, the huge gravitational redshift distinguish two characteristic time for such a process: the one of the infalling observer, that is fast, and the one of an external observer, that is extremely long. I discuss how such a process is allowed by gluing classical metrics...

We study the properties of regular black holes using both test and gravitating scalar fields. The main motivation being to discover features that distinguish them from real black holes. One such characteristic is regularity of horizon which is spoilt by scalar field in spherically symmetric static cases.

Abstract

In general relativity theory (GRT) one can construct solutions which are related to real physical objects. The most famous one is the black hole solution. One now believes that in the center of many galaxies there is a rotating super-massive black hole, the Kerr black hole. Because there is an axis of rotation, the Kerr solution is a member of the family of the axially symmetric...

In calculations of gravitational collapse to form black holes, trapping horizons (foliated by marginally trapped surfaces) make their first appearance either within the collapsing matter or where it joins on to a vacuum exterior. Those which then move outwards with respect to the matter have been proposed for use in defining black holes, replacing the global concept of an event horizon, which...

The possibility of closed timelike curves in general relativity opens up the physical possibility of

time travel. This talk reviews the different quantum mechanical theories of closed timelike curves, and

discusses their various advantages and drawbacks. We will discuss whether it is possible to use closed

timelike curves to build a time machine.

We propose a time-of-arrival operator in quantum mechanics by conditioning on a quantum clock. This allows us to bypass some of the problems of previous proposals, and to obtain a Hermitian time of arrival operator whose probability distribution arises from the Born rule and which has a clear physical interpretation. The same procedure can be employed to measure the "time at which some event...

The two-state-vector formalism, the entangled histories and the pseudo-density formalisms are attempts to better understand quantum correlations in time. These formalisms share some similarities, but they are not identical, having subtle differences in their interpretation and manipulation of quantum temporal structures [1, 2]. I will show, for instance, that they treat operators and states on...

The set of quantum mechanical nonlocal correlations is unique and intriguing in many ways. Characterizing this set is expected to cast light on the fundamental physical principles governing quantum theory, those from which the mathematical structure of the theory arises. Recently, we have shown ([A. Carmi and E. Cohen, Sci. Adv. eaav8370 (2019)] and followup works) that this set may largely be...

The violation of the discrete symmetries of charge conjugation (C), parity inversion (P), and time reversal (T) observed in high energy physics are clearly fundamental aspects of nature. A new quantum theory [1,2] has been introduced to demonstrate the possibility that the violations have large-scale physical effects. The new theory does not assume any conservation laws or equations of...

The description of time in quantum mechanics and in particular in connection with quantum gravity and cosmology has always presented significant difficulties. One of descriptions based on Page and Wootters (PaW) mechanism which considers “time” as a quantum degree of freedom[1]. Here we give a complete review of the Page and Wootters' quantum time mechanism and provide experimental...

One says that there is a *quantum computational speedup* when the computation of the solution of a problem is more efficient quantumly than classically. Let us consider, as an example, the simplest case that Bob, the problem setter, hides a ball in a chest of four drawers. Alice, the problem solver, is to locate in by opening drawers (by querying the oracle: is the ball in that drawer?). While...

Prof. Stefano Liberati (SISSA) and Prof. Lorenzo Maccone (Univ. Pavia);

Moderators: Mariateresa Crosta (INAF-OATo)

The notion of causality, both local or global, is tied inextricably to the Lorentzian character of spacetime.

This is embodied by the causal structure poset which, given weak causality constriants, determines the conformal

spacetime geometry. This is the starting point for the causal set approach to quantum gravity, where the

underlying continuum is replaced by a locally finite partially...

I present a new gravitational collapse singularity theorem which improves Penrose's and which does not assume predictability (global hyperbolicity) while it is compatible with chronology violation (closed timelike curves) and black hole evaporation.

This talk illustrates a model of spacetime with closed timelike curves proposed in a recent paper (D. Fermi and L. Pizzocchero, Class. Quantum Grav. 35 (2018), 165003, 42pp). This spacetime is diﬀeomorphic to R4 and carries an ad hoc metric; it consists of a ﬂat outer region and of a “time machine”, formed by a toroidal interface and by an inner ﬂat region. The timelike geodesics of this...

General relativity allows for the existence of closed time-like curves, along which a material object could travel back in time and interact with its past self. Previous studies by Thorne and others showed that for any choice of initial conditions, consistent dynamics — even in the presence of closed time-like curves — exist. Moreover and counterintuitively, they showed that the examples with...

While the dynamics of black hole evaporation and closed-timelike-curve physics in the presence of quantum fields are to some extent understood in principle, the computations necessary to produce concrete predictions from them are often intractable in practice. Here we show how tensor-network based numerics, which assign a manageably sparse representation to certain quantum states, can be used...

I would like to explore a change in the interpretation of time. By thinking time as a cut, and no more like a lapse, there could be interesting opportunities. Particularly, with such interpretation, quantum gravity theories based on 3+1 spacetime (e.g. Kuchar or Ellis' evolving block universe) may open unexpected and fruitful views. Among the many consequences, there will be no possibility for...

The Hartman effect – first discovered by MacColl, in 1932 – is the claimed observation that, when a particle tunnels, it arrives at the opposite side of the barrier the moment it encounters the barrier. If this is so, then sufficiently wide barriers and fast particles should produce superluminal effective velocities. However, such superluminal effective velocities have been dismissed as...

In this talk I shall review the implications of superluminal travel and the means by which it can be achieved in classical General Relativity. We shall then see in the specific case of superluminal warp drives how it seems that a preemptive form of chronological protection is at work once their dynamics it is analysed within quantum field theory in curved spacetime. Finally, we shall discuss...

In this talk I will discuss the properties of quantum fields in causal set theory, a theory of quantum gravity in which nonlocality emerges as a consequence of discreteness and local Lorentz invariance. In particular I will present some recent results regarding the computation of entanglement entropy in this context and consider some comparisons with other models of quantum spacetime with...

Harnessing the flow of proper time of arbitrary external systems over which we exert little or no control has been a recurring theme in both science and science-fiction. Unfortunately, all relativistic schemes to achieve this effect beyond mere time dilation are utterly unrealistic. In this work, we find that there exist non-relativistic scattering experiments which, if successful, freeze out,...

Although quantum field theory inherits much of the basic structure laid out by the postulates of ordinary quantum mechanics, it is known that the measurement theory cannot go through unscathed. There are examples of idealised measurements in quantum field theory which produce superluminal signalling. These examples indicate that endowing quantum theory with a relativistic spacetime structure...

Traversable Wormholes are a prediction of General Relativity. After the discovery of the Gravitational Wave signals detected in 2015, Traversable Wormholes have had another renaissance, because they can be considered as Black Hole Mimickers.

In this talk we give a pedagogical introduction and we present some theoretical aspects at classical and semiclassical level, namely when the source has...

For the simplest case of Ellis Wormhole (WH) the fluid moving through the mentioned metrics is considered. For this purpose, the set of linearized equations composed of the Euler and continuity equations is examined. The propagation of sound waves has been considered and corresponding non-trivial analytical and numerical results – obtained.

We will show two fundamental applications of quantum superpositions of spatially separated states of mesoscopic objects (nano- and micro-spheres). Firstly we are going to show how convenient it may be to prepare and probe such superpositions through a pure ancillary system such as a spin. Next, we are going to show how an entanglement between two such interferometers can be generated purely...

I will first review the timeless Page-Wootters picture of the quantum universe in which there is no overall dynamics, but where the states of quantum fields evolve relative to the quantum states of the underlying space. I will then introduce the concept of superposing different causal orders – a notion that could be naturally motivated within some approaches to quantum gravity – and ask if and...

I will expose a local, fully quantum-field-theory compliant model of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, where the Aharonov-Bohm phase is gradually and locally acquired. I will explore the theoretical and experimental implications of this model, especially in regard to locality and causality in quantum theory.

Quantum optical systems present several interesting properties that allow using them as a tool for visualizing physical phenomena otherwise subject of theoretical speculation only, as Bose Einstein condensation for Hawking radiation [1] or Page Wootters model [2-5].

Closed Time-like Curves (CTC), one of the most striking predictions of general relativity, are notorious for generating...

Title: Contrary Inferences for Classical Histories in the Consistent Histories Approach

The non-relativistic quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in the history of science, since it has been verified experimentally in several different situations and with extremely high precision. Despite the fact that its mathematical formalism is universally accepted, its conceptual...

What allowed Einstein to transcend Newton’s conception of absolute time was his insistence on an operational definition of time in terms of the measure- ment of a clock. Quantum theory has yet to be liberated from this absolute time as evidenced by the Schr ̈odinger equation in which time appears as an external classical parameter.

In this talk I will introduce an operational formulation of...

We study quantum gravity induced quantum causal structure in the context of quantum field theories. We argue both conceptually and numerically that when spacetime is treated quantumly, (1) exact microcausality condition, (2) exact causal boundaries, and (3) the distinction between particles and antiparticles cannot be maintained. These suggest possibilities of "time travel" and "tunneling out...

Closed timelike curves are striking predictions of general relativity allowing for time-travel. They are afflicted by notorious causality issues (e.g. grandfather’s paradox). Quantum models where a qubit travels back in time solve these problems, at the cost of violating quantum theory’s linearity—leading e.g. to universal quantum cloning. Interestingly, linearity is violated even by open...

In this talk I describe the mathematics required in order to provide a description of the observables for quantum fields on low-regularity spacetimes. The first step involves constructing low-regularity advanced and retarded Green operators as maps between suitable function spaces. In specifying these we need to use graph norms on Sobolev spaces to ensure that the Green operators are...